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Bacterial Pathogens of Humans (page 6)

(This chapter has 6 pages)

© Kenneth Todar, PhD

Table 2. Important Bacteria that Are Pathogens of Humans
Bacterial pathogen
  
Disease(s)
Transmission
Gram-negative bacteria 


Escherichia coli
Gastroenteritis, urinary tract infections, neonatal meningitis
F W E
E. coli O157:H7
Diarrhea, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)
F
Salmonella enterica
Gastroenteritis
F W
Salmonella typhi

Typhoid fever
F W
Shigella dysenteriae
Bacillary dysentery
F W
Yersina pestis
Bubonic plague
IV
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Opportunistic infections, swimmer´┐Żs ear, hot tub itch, cellulitis, pneumonia, more
S W C HA E
Vibrio cholerae Asiatic cholera
W
Bordetella pertussis
Whooping cough
RC
Haemophilus influenzae
Meningitis, pneumonia, sinusitis
RC
Helicobacter pylori
Gastric and duodenal ulcers
F?
Campylobacter jejuni
Gastroenteritis
F W
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Gonorrhea
S C
Neisseria meningitidis
Meningococcemia and meningitis
R C E
Brucella abortus
Undulant fever
IA M
Bacteroides fragilis
Anaerobic infections
E

Gram-positive bacteria


Staphylococcus aureus
Food poisoning, wound infections, toxic shock syndrome, more F C E HA IA
Streptococcus pyogenes
Strep throat, scarlet fever, mastitis, necrotizing fasciitis, more   
C
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis
RC E
Bacillus anthracis
Anthrax
S IA
Bacillus cereus
Food poisoning
F
Clostridium tetani
Tetanus
S
Clostridium perfringens
Food poisoning, gas gangrene, uterine infections
F S E
Clostridium botulinum
Botulism, infant botulism
F
Clostridium difficile
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis
C HA E
Corynebacterium diphtheriae Diphtheria
RC
Listeria monocytogenes Listeriosis
F
Not typed by Gram stain


Mycobacterium tuberculosis       
TB (tuberculosis)
RC M
Mycobacterium leprae
Leprosy
C
Chlamydia trachomatis Chlamydia, lymphogranuloma venereum, trachoma
SC C
Chlamydia pneumoniae Pneumonia
RC
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Atypical pneumonia
RC
Rickettisas Rickettsiosis: typhus, RMSF 
IV
Treponema pallidum Syphilis
SC
Borrelia burgdorferi Lyme disease IV

KEY TO TRANSMISSION. C = Contact   E = Endogenous   F = Food borne   HA = Hospital Acquired
IA = Infected Animal   IV = Insect Vector   M = Milk   RC = Respiratory Contact   SC = Sexual Contact
S = Soil   W = Water


Table 3. Bacterial Diseases of Humans by Anatomical Site or Type

Infections of the oral cavity
Dental caries: Streptococcus mutans, S. oralis, S. sanguis, S. gordonii
Gingivitis
Periodontal disease

GI Tract
Gastric and duodenal ulcers: Helicobacter pylori
Gastroenteritis: Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli
Dysentery: Shigella
Antibiotic´┐Żassociated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis: Clostridium difficile
Asiatic cholera: Vibrio cholerae
Food poisoning
    Staphylococcus aureus
    Bacillus cereus
    Clostridium perfringens
    Clostridium botulinum
Food infections
    Salmonella
    E. coli O157:H7
    Campylobacter jejuni
    Listeria monocytogenes: Listeriosis

Respiratory Tract
Sinusitis
    Haemophilus influenzae
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Strep throat: Streptococcus pyogenes
Diphtheria: Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Pneumonia
    Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Staphylococcus aureus
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Haemophilus influenzae
    Chlamydia pneumoniae
    Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Whooping cough: Bordetella pertussis
Tuberculosis: Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Sexually-Transmitted Disease
Chlamydia: Chlamydia trachomatis
Gonorrhea: Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Syphilis: Treponema pallidum

Urinary Tract Infections
    E. coli
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Staphylococcus aureus

Meningitis
    Neisseria meningitidis
    Haemophilus influenzae
    Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Escherichia coli

Otitis
    Otitis externa: Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Otitis media: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae

Skin
Acne, boils, pimples, impetigo: Staphylococcus aureus
Hot tub itch, folliculitis, cellulitis: Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Necrotizing fasciitis: Streptococcus pyogenes

Zoonoses
Anthrax: Bacillus anthracis
Brucellosis: Brucella abortus
Leptospirosis: Leptospira

Arthropod borne
Lyme disease: Borrelia burgdorferi
Ehrlichiosis: Ehrlichia
Rickettsiosis (Typhus, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever): Rickettsias
Plague: Yersinia pestis

Toxinoses
Toxic shock syndrome, Scalded skin syndrome: Staphylococcus aureus
Scarlet fever: Streptococcus pyogenes
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS): E. coli O157:H7
Diphtheria: Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Anthrax: Bacillus anthracis
Tetanus: Clostridium tetani
Botulism: Clostridium botulinum

Hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)
Escherichia coli
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Clostridium difficile




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