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Tag words: bacteria, archaea, procaryote, prokaryote, procaryotic, prokaryotic, microbiology, microbe, Euryarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, Korarchaeota, methanogen, Methanobacterium, Methanococcus, thermoacidophile, Sulfolobus, hyperthermophile, extreme halophile, Halococcus, Halobacterium, extremophile, Bergey's Manual, The Prokaryotes, Domains of Life, phylogenetic tree, Gram negative bacteria, Gram positive bacteria, green bacteria, Chlorobium, Chloroflexus, purple bacteria, Thiopedia, Chromatium, Rhodobacter, Rhodospirillum, Heliobacterium, Chloracidobacterium, cyanobacteria, Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Anabaena, Synechococcus, spirochete, Borrelia, Treponema, Leptospira, spirilla, vibrios, pyogenic cocci, myxobacteria, lithotrophic bacteria, nitrogen fixing bacteria, endospore forming bacteria, enteric bacteria, aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, proteobacteria, E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Erwinia, Yersinia, Pseudomonas, pseudomonad, Vibrio, Rhizobium, Rickettsia, Bordetella, Neisseria, Haemophilus, Legionella, Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Firmicutes, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Clostridium, Listeria, lactic acid bacteria, Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Actinomycete, Streptomyces, Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium, Rickettsia, Chlamydia, Xanthomonas, Burkholderia, Ralstonia.

Kenneth Todar currently teaches Microbiology 100 at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.  His main teaching interest include general microbiology, bacterial diversity, microbial ecology and pathogenic bacteriology.

Bacillus cereus bacteria.Print this Page

Important Groups of Procaryotes (page 9)

(This chapter has 10 pages)

© Kenneth Todar, PhD


1. Balows, A., H.G. Truper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder, and K.-H. Schleifer (eds.). The Prokaryotes, 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag, New York. 1992.

Published in four volumes. The most complete reference on the characteristics of procaryotes. Includes procedures for the selective isolation and identification of virtually all known procaryotes. The online edition at The Prokaryotes has unfortunately been removed from the web.

2. Dworkin, M; Falkow, S.; Rosenberg, E.; Schleifer, K.-H.; Stackebrandt, E. (eds.) The Prokaryotes, 3rd ed. Springer-Verlag, New York. 2007
Vols. 1-7 (Set) The Prokaryotes 3rd ed

The revised Third Edition of The Prokaryotes, acclaimed as a classic reference in the field, offers new and updated articles by experts from around the world on taxa of relevance to medicine, ecology and industry. Entries combine phylogenetic and systematic data with insights into genetics, physiology and application. Existing entries have been revised to incorporate rapid progress and technological innovation. The new edition improves on the lucid presentation, logical layout and abundance of illustrations. Expanded to seven volumes in its print form, the new edition adds a new, searchable online version.

3. Holt, J.G. (editor-in-chief). Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. 1st Edition.

published as 4 volumes 1984-1989

Volume 1 (1984) Gram-negative Bacteria of general, medical, or industrial importance

Volume 2 (1986) Gram-positive Bacteria other than Actinomycetes

Volume 3 (1989) Archaeobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and remaining Gram-negative Bacteria

Volume 4 (1989) Actinomycetes

This has been the standard authoritative guide to bacterial taxonomy and identification throughout the nineties and continuing into the new millenium. It was the usual place to begin a literature survey or an identification process of a specific bacterial group. The newer (second) edition, 2001 (below), takes a hierarchical approach to classification based primarily on genetic similarities as reflected in 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA sequences. As the second edition becomes progressively more available, it is sure to replace this classic, although it will remain useful to aid in the identification of bacteria.

4. Holt, J.G. (ed). Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. 9th Edition. 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology 9th ed

The book was compiled by abstracting the phenotypic information contained in the four volumes of Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. The arrangement of the book is strictly phenotypic, with no attempt to offer a natural higher classification. The arrangement chosen is utilitarian and is intended to aid in the identification of bacteria. The bacteria are divided into 35 groups, which are comparable to the "Parts" in the eighth edition and the "Sections" in the Systematic volumes. These groups are not meant to be formal taxonomic ranks, but are a continuation of the tradition of dividing the bacteria into easily recognized phenotypic groups. This arrangement is most useful for diagnostic purposes.

5. Garrity G.M. (ed). Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. 2nd Edition. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed.

The second edition is being published in 5 volumes

Volume 1 (2001) The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria. Editor-in-Chief: George M. Garrity; Editors: David R. Boone and Richard W. Castenholz. Editorial Board: James T. Staley, David R. Boone, Don J. Brenner, Richard W. Castenholz, George M. Garrity, Michael Goodfellow, Noel R. Krieg, Fred A. Rainey, Karl-Heinz Schleifer.

Volume 2 (2005) The Proteobacteria. Editor-in-Chief: George M. Garrity. Editorial Board: Don J. Brenner, Noel R. Krieg and James T. Staley.

Volume 3 (2008) The low G + C Gram-positive Bacteria. Editors: Paul De Vos, George Garrity, Dorothy Jones, Noel R. Krieg, Wolfgang Ludwig, Fred A. Rainey, Karl-Heinz Schleifer and William B. Whitman.

Volume 4 (2008) The Planctomycetes, Spriochaetes, Fibrobacteres, Bacteriodetes and Fusobacteria. Editors: Brian Hedlund, Noel R. Krieg, Wolfgang Ludwig, Bruce J. Paster, James T. Staley, Naomi Ward and William B. Whitman.

Volume 5 (2009) The high G + C Gram-positive Bacteria. Editors: Hans-Jürgen Busse, Michael Goodfellow, Peter Kämpfer, Wolfgang Ludwig, James T. Staley, Ken-ichiro Suzuki and William B. Whitman.

One of the most comprehensive and authoritative works in the field of bacterial taxonomy, has been extensively revised in the form of a five volume Second Edition. Since the first edition was published in 1984, the field has undergone explosive growth, with over 2200 new species and 390 new genera having been described. Numerous taxonomic rearrangements and changes in nomenclature have resulted from more than 850 published new combinations. These developments, which are attributable to rapid advances in molecular sequencing of highly conserved regions of the procaryotic genome, most notably genes coding for the RNA of the small ribosomal subunit, have lead to a natural classification that reflects the evolutionary history of Bacteria and Archaea, and to the development of new, universally applicable methods of identifying these organisms. This new edition has been completely reorganized along phylogenetic lines to reflect the current state of procaryotic taxonomy but still maintains the familiar layout of the First Edition. In addition to the detailed treatments, provided for all of the validly named and well-known species of prokaryotes, new ecological information and more extensive introductory chapters have been added. Use of the manual is aided by a system of cross referencing between the phylogenetic groups and the phenotypic groups used in the First Edition. In keeping with the tradition of the First Edition, volumes will be available individually, and eventually as a complete set.

The classification and taxonomy results from comparative sequencing of ribosomal RNA. Two Domains of Procaryotes are identified, Archaea and Bacteria. The Domains are subclassified into Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species. The Bacterial Domain contains 23 Phyla. A genus outline that includes an index of organisms is available online at Bergey's Manual Genus Outline 2001.

Other References

Tree of Life

Bergey's Manual Current Publications

Bergey's Resources: culture collections, databases and organizations

List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in Nomenclature

Bacterial Nomenclature up-to-date

Bacterial Identification Matrices

chapter continued

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Kenneth Todar has taught microbiology to undergraduate students at The University of Texas, University of Alaska and University of Wisconsin since 1969.

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