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Tag words: bacteria, enteric bacteria, microbiology, microbe, Salmonella, Salmonella Enterica, Salmonella Typhi, S. Typhimurium, S. Enterica, typhoid fever, enteric fever, salmonellosis, food poisoning, gastroenteritis.



Salmonella

Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gamma Proteobacteria
Order: Enterobacteriales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Salmonella
Species: e.g. S. enterica








Kenneth Todar currently teaches Microbiology 100 at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.  His main teaching interest include general microbiology, bacterial diversity, microbial ecology and pathogenic bacteriology.

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Salmonella and Salmonellosis (page 4)

(This chapter has 5 pages)

© Kenneth Todar, PhD

Pathogenesis of Salmomella Infections in Humans

Salmonella infections in humans vary with the serovar, the strain, the infectious dose, the nature of the contaminated food, and the host status. Certain serovars are highly pathogenic for humans; the virulence of more rare serovars is unknown. Strains of the same serovar are also known to differ in their pathogenicity. An oral dose of at least 105Salmonella Typhi cells are needed to cause typhoid in 50% of human volunteers, whereas at least 109 S. Typhimurium cells (oral dose) are needed to cause symptoms of a toxic infection. Infants, immunosuppressed patients, and those affected with blood disease are more susceptible to Salmonella infection than healthy adults.

In the pathogenesis of typhoid the bacteria enter the human digestive tract, penetrate the intestinal mucosa (causing no lesion), and are stopped in the mesenteric lymph nodes. There, bacterial multiplication occurs, and part of the bacterial population lyses. From the mesenteric lymph nodes, viable bacteria and LPS (endotoxin) may be released into the bloodstream resulting in septicemia  Release of endotoxin is responsible for cardiovascular �collapsus and tuphos� (a stuporous state�origin of the name typhoid) due to action on the ventriculus neurovegetative centers.

Salmonella excretion by human patients may continue long after clinical cure. Asymptomatic carriers are potentially dangerous when unnoticed. About 5% of patients clinically cured from typhoid remain carriers for months or even years. Antibiotics are usually ineffective on Salmonella carriage (even if salmonellae are susceptible to them) because the site of carriage may not allow penetration by the antibiotic.

Salmonellae survive sewage treatments if suitable germicides are not used in sewage processing. In a typical cycle of typhoid, sewage from a community is directed to a sewage plant. Effluent from the sewage plant passes into a coastal river where edible shellfish (mussels, oysters) live. Shellfish concentrate bacteria as they filter several liters of water per hour. Ingestion by humans of these seafoods (uncooked or superficially cooked) may cause typhoid or other salmonellosis. Salmonellae do not colonize or multiply in contaminated shellfish.

Typhoid is strictly a human disease.The incidence of human disease decreases when the level of development of a country increases (i.e., controlled water sewage systems, pasteurization of milk and dairy products). Where these hygienic conditions are missing, the probability of fecal contamination of water and food remains high and so is the incidence of typhoid.

Foodborne Salmonella toxic infections are caused by ubiquitous Salmonella serovars (e.g., Typhimurium). About 12-24 hours following ingestion of contaminated food (containing a sufficient number of Salmonella), symptoms appear (diarrhea, vomiting, fever) and last 2-5 days. Spontaneous cure usually occurs.

Salmonella may be associated with all kinds of food. Contamination of meat (cattle, pigs, goats, chicken, etc.) may originate from animal salmonellosis, but most often it results from contamination of muscles with the intestinal contents during evisceration of animals, washing, and transportation of carcasses. Surface contamination of meat is usually of little consequence, as proper cooking will sterilize it (although handling of contaminated meat may result in contamination of hands, tables, kitchenware, towels, other foods, etc.). However, when contaminated meat is ground, multiplication of Salmonella may occur within the ground meat and if cooking is superficial, ingestion of this highly contaminated food may produce a Salmonellainfection. Infection may follow ingestion of any food that supports multiplication of Salmonella such as eggs, cream, mayonnaise, creamed foods, etc.), as a large number of ingested salmonellae are needed to give symptoms. Prevention of Salmonella toxic infection relies on avoiding contamination (improvement of hygiene), preventing multiplication of Salmonella in food (constant storage of food at 4°C), and use of pasteurized and sterilized milk and milk products. Vegetables and fruits may carry Salmonella when contaminated with fertilizers of fecal origin, or when washed with polluted water.

The incidence of foodborne Salmonella infection/toxication remains reletavely high in developed countries because of commercially prepared food or ingredients for food. Any contamination of commercially prepared food will result in a large-scale infection. In underdeveloped countries, foodborne Salmonella intoxications are less spectacular because of the smaller number of individuals simultaneously infected, but also because the bacteriological diagnosis of Salmonella toxic infection may not be available. However, the incidence of Salmonella carriage in underdeveloped countries is known to be high.

Salmonella epidemics may occur among infants in pediatric wards. The frequency and gravity of these epidemics are affected by hygienic conditions, malnutrition, and the excessive use of antibiotics that select for multiresistant strains.

Salmonella Enteritidis Infection
Egg-associated salmonellosis is an important public health problem in the United States and several European countries. Salmonella  Enteritidis, can be inside perfectly normal-appearing eggs, and if the eggs are eaten raw or undercooked, the bacterium can cause illness. During the 1980s, illness related to contaminated eggs occurred mosy frequently in the northeastern United States, but now illness caused by S. Enteritidis is increasing in other parts of the country as well.

Unlike eggborne salmonellosis of past decades, the current epidemic is due to intact and disinfected grade A eggs. Salmonella Enteritidis silently infects the ovaries of healthy appearing hens and contaminates the eggs before the shells are formed. Most types of Salmonella live in the intestinal tracts of animals and birds and are transmitted to humans by contaminated foods of animal origin. Stringent procedures for cleaning and inspecting eggs were implemented in the 1970s and have made salmonellosis caused by external fecal contamination of egg shells extremely rare. However, unlike eggborne salmonellosis of past decades, the current epidemic is due to intact and disinfected grade A eggs. The reason for this is that Salmonella Enteritidis silently infects the ovaries of hens and contaminates the eggs before the shells are formed.

Although most infected hens have been found in the northeastern United States, the infection also occurs in hens in other areas of the country. In the Northeast, approximately one in 10,000 eggs may be internally contaminated. In other parts of the United States, contaminated eggs appear less common. Only a small number of hens seem to be infected at any given time, and an infected hen can lay many normal eggs while only occasionally laying an egg contaminated with  Salmonella  Enteritidis.

A person infected with the Salmonella  Enteritidis usually has fever, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea beginning 12 to 72 hours after consuming a contaminated food or beverage. The illness usually lasts 4 to 7 days, and most persons recover without antibiotic treatment. However, the diarrhea can be severe, and the person may be ill enough to require hospitalization.  The elderly, infants, and those with impaired immune systems (including HIV) may have a more severe illness. In these patients, the infection may spread from the intestines to the bloodstream, and then to other body sites and can cause death unless the person is treated promptly with antibiotics.

Exotoxins

Salmonella strains may produce a thermolabile enterotoxin that bears a limited relatedness to cholera toxin both structurally and antigenically. This enterotoxin causes water secretion in rat ileal loop and is recognized by antibodies against both cholera toxin and the thermolabile enterotoxin (LT) of enterotoxinogenic E. coli, but it does not bind in vitro to ganglioside GM1 (the receptor for E. coli LT and cholera ctx). Additionally, a cytotoxin that inhibits protein synthesis and is immunologically distinct from Shiga toxin has been demonstrated. Both of these toxins are presumed to play a role in the diarrheal symptoms of salmonellosis.




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