Online Textbook Bacteriology is continuously updated and includes information on Staphylococcus, MRSA, Streptococcus, E. coli, anthrax, cholera, tuberculosis, Lyme disease and other bacterial diseases of humans.
Kenneth Todar is the author of the Online Textbook of Bacteriology and an emeritus lecturer at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.Class Biologically Clean isolators, cleanrooms, containment units and decontamination chambers for animal research including germ-free and gnotobiotic.
The Online Textbook of Bacteriology is a general and medical microbiology text and includes discussion of staph, MRSA, strep, Anthrax, E. coli, cholera, tuberculosis, Lyme Disease and other bacterial pathogens.
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Tag words: tuberculosis, TB, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium leprae, M.TB, MTB, Ziehl-Neelsen, cord factor, mycolic acid, granulomateous, tubercle, Simon foci, Ghon complex, tuberculin, PPD, tuberculin test, Mantoux test, skin test, isoniazid, INH, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, PZA, BCG vaccine, MDR TB, XDR TB.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Actinobacteria
Order: Actinomycetales
Suborder: Corynebacterineae
Family: Mycobacteriaceae
Genus: Mycobacterium
Species: M. tuberculosis

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Kenneth Todar currently teaches Microbiology 100 at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.  His main teaching interest include general microbiology, bacterial diversity, microbial ecology and pathogenic bacteriology.

Bacillus cereus bacteria.Print this Page

Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Tuberculosis (page 4)

(This chapter has 4 pages)

© Kenneth Todar, PhD

Surveillance of Tuberculosis in the United States  (From CDC Division of Tuberculosis Elimination)

In the United States TB is on the decline. There was a resurgence of TB from 1986 to 1992, but since 1993, the numbers of cases have been going down and are now at the lowest they have ever been.  In 2007, a total of 13,293 cases were reported.

Case rates in the U.S. are highest in Hawaii, Alaska, California, Arizona, Texas, Louisiana, the Southeastern states, New York and New Jersey.

In 2006, the TB rate declined to 4.4 cases per 100,000 population, the lowest recorded rate since national reporting began in 1953. Despite this overall improvement, progress has slowed in recent years; the average annual percentage decline in the TB rate slowed from 7.3% per year during 1993--2000 to 3.8% during 2000--2007. The proportion of TB cases contributed by foreign-born persons has increased each year since 1996. In 2007, the TB rate in foreign-born persons in the United States was 9.7 times higher than in U.S.-born persons.

Between 1993 and 2006, the number of cases of TB in foreign-born persons remained virtually level, with approximately 7,000�8,000 cases each year, whereas the number in U.S.-born persons decreased from more than 17,000 in 1993 to less than 6,000 in 2006. The percentage of all cases occurring in foreign-born persons during this period increased from 29% in 1993 to 57% in 2006.

In many states, especially in the West, the upper Midwest, and the Northeast, most new cases of TB now occur in individuals who are foreign born.

Since 1993, there has been a gradual decline in the number of TB patients with coinfection with HIV.

Primary drug resistance (to at least isoniazid) for the past 13 years, has remained between 7.0% and 8.4%. However, resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampin, known as multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB), decreased from 2.4% in 1993 to 1.1% in 1997, and remained at approximately 1%, up to and including 2006.

The number of cases of multiple drug-resistant TB (MDR TB) decreased from 2.4% in 1993 to 1.1% in 1997, and remained at approximately 1% through 2006.


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Kenneth Todar has taught microbiology to undergraduate students at The University of Texas, University of Alaska and University of Wisconsin since 1969.

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